Deep learning usually refers to deep artificial neural networks. Neural networks are a type of machine learning algorithm loosely modeled on the neurons in the human brain. Deep neural nets involve stacking several neural nets on top of each other to enable a feature hierarchy for more accurate classification and prediction. Deep learning is the state of the art in most tasks or machine perception, involved classification, clustering and prediction applied to raw sensory data.
Deeplearning4j is the most widely used open source deep learning library for Java and the JVM. It also has a Scala API and uses Keras as its Python API for neural network configuration. The official website provides many tutorials and simple theoretical explanations for deep learning and neural networks.
Neuroph is an open-source Java framework for neural networks. Developers can create neural nets with the Neuroph GUI. The Neuroph API documentation also explains how neural networks work.
An expert system is also called a rules-based system. The rules are typically if-then statements; i.e. if this condition is met, then perform this action. An expert system usually comprises hundreds or thousands of nested if-then statements. Expert systems were a popular form of AI in the 1980s. They are good at modeling static and deterministic relationships; e.g. the tax code. However, they are also brittle and they require manual modification, which can be slow and expensive. Unlike, machine-learning algorithms, they do not adapt as they are exposed to more data. They can be a useful complement to a machine-learning algorithm, codifying the things that should always happen a certain way.
Drools is a business rules management system backed by Red Hat.
Natural language processing (NLP) refers to applications that use computer science, AI and computational linguistics to enable interactions between computers and human languages, both spoken and written. It involves programming computers to process large natural language corpora (sets of documents).
Challenges in natural language processing frequently involve natural language understanding (NLU) and natural language generation (NLG), as well as connecting language, machine perception and dialog systems.
Apache OpenNLP is a machine-learning toolkit for processing natural language; i.e. text. The official website provides API documentation with information on how to use the library.
Stanford CoreNLP is the most popular Java natural-language processing framework. It provides various tools for NLP tasks. The official website provides tutorials and documentation with information on how to use this framework.
Machine learning encompasses a wide range of algorithms that are able to adapt themselves when exposed to data, this includes random forests, gradient boosted machines, support-vector machines and others.
SMILE stands for Statistical and Machine Intelligence Learning Engine. SMILE was create by Haifeng Lee of ADP, and provides fast, scalable machine learning for Java.
Apache SINGA is an open-source machine-learning library capable of distributed training, with a focus on healthcare applications.
Java-ML is an open source Java framework which provides various machine learning algorithms specifically for programmers. The official website provides API documentation with many code samples and tutorials.
RapidMiner is a data science platform that supports various machine- and deep-learning algorithms through its GUI and Java API. It has a very big community, many available tutorials, and an extensive documentation.
Weka is a collection of machine learning algorithms that can be applied directly to a dataset, through the Weka GUI or API. The WEKA community is large, providing various tutorials for Weka and machine learning itself.
Encog is a Java machine learning framework that supports many machine learning algorithms. It was developed by Jeff Heaton, of Heaton Research. The official website provides documentation and examples.